Define the turns ratio of a transformer.

Mathematically, the turns ratio (N) can be defined as:

N = Ns / Np

where:

Ns = Number of turns in the secondary winding

Np = Number of turns in the primary winding

The turns ratio determines the voltage transformation between the primary and secondary sides of the transformer. Specifically, it governs the relationship between the input voltage (Vp) applied to the primary winding and the output voltage (Vs) obtained from the secondary winding. The voltage transformation ratio is directly proportional to the turns ratio:

Voltage transformation ratio (VTR) = Vs / Vp = Ns / Np

For example, if a transformer has a turns ratio of 2:1, it means that the number of turns in the secondary winding is twice that of the primary winding. Consequently, the output voltage will be twice the input voltage. Similarly, if the turns ratio is 1:1 (also known as an isolation transformer), the input and output voltages will be equal, and the transformer will not provide any voltage transformation.