Voltage, also known as electric potential difference or electromotive force (EMF), is a fundamental concept in electricity and electrical engineering. It represents the difference in electric potential between two points in an electrical circuit. In simpler terms, voltage is the driving force that pushes electric charges (electrons) through a conductor, such as a wire, from one point to another.
Voltage is measured in volts (V), and it signifies the amount of energy carried by each unit of electric charge as it moves from the higher potential point (positive voltage) to the lower potential point (negative voltage) in the circuit. A higher voltage means more energy is available to move charges, and a lower voltage means less energy is available for the same purpose.
For example, in a battery-powered circuit, the positive terminal of the battery has a higher voltage than the negative terminal. When a conductive path, such as a wire, is connected between the positive and negative terminals of the battery, electrons flow from the negative terminal to the positive terminal, driven by the voltage difference between the two points.
Voltage is a crucial parameter in electrical systems as it influences the behavior of electrical components, current flow, and power consumption. It's an essential aspect of understanding and designing electrical circuits for various applications in electronics, power distribution, and other fields.