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Define frequency modulation (FM) and its advantages over amplitude modulation (AM).

1 Answer

Frequency Modulation (FM) is a modulation technique used in communication systems to transmit information through varying the frequency of a carrier signal. In FM, the frequency of the carrier signal changes in proportion to the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal (the information signal).

Advantages of Frequency Modulation (FM) over Amplitude Modulation (AM):

Noise immunity: FM is more resistant to noise than AM. In FM, the information is encoded in the frequency variations, and the amplitude remains constant. This means that variations in the signal's amplitude due to noise have little effect on the demodulated signal, resulting in better signal quality and clarity.

Better sound quality: FM is commonly used in high-fidelity audio broadcasting, such as FM radio stations. It provides better sound quality compared to AM due to its noise resistance and the fact that it does not suffer from the amplitude distortion issues that AM can face.

Constant power transmission: In AM, variations in amplitude result in changes in power transmitted, which leads to inefficient use of power. In contrast, FM maintains a constant amplitude, resulting in a more efficient use of power.

Large bandwidth efficiency: FM can transmit more information in a given bandwidth compared to AM. In FM, the frequency deviation is directly proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal. This allows for a wide range of frequency variation and, subsequently, the transmission of a larger amount of information.

Less susceptible to signal level variations: FM receivers are less affected by signal level fluctuations. As long as the FM signal is above a certain threshold level, the quality remains relatively constant, while in AM, signal strength variations can significantly impact the received audio quality.

Reduced interference: FM signals are less likely to cause interference with other signals, making it more suitable for crowded frequency bands and environments where multiple communication systems operate in close proximity.

Overall, FM modulation provides better sound quality, improved noise immunity, and more efficient use of bandwidth and power compared to AM modulation, making it a preferred choice in various applications, such as radio broadcasting, audio communication, and certain wireless communication systems.
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