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Define h-parameters (hybrid parameters) in transistor models.

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In transistor modeling, h-parameters, also known as hybrid parameters or hybrid-pi parameters, are a set of four small-signal parameters used to describe the behavior of a bipolar junction transistor (BJT) or a field-effect transistor (FET) in its linear operating region. These parameters are useful for analyzing and designing amplifier circuits and other linear applications.

For bipolar junction transistors (BJTs), the h-parameters are defined as follows:

h<sub>fe</sub> (or h<sub>21</sub>): Common Emitter Current Gain
This parameter represents the ratio of the change in collector current (I<sub>c</sub>) to the change in base current (I<sub>b</sub>) at a constant collector-emitter voltage (V<sub>CE</sub>). It is a measure of the transistor's current amplification capability under small-signal conditions.

h<sub>ie</sub> (or h<sub>11</sub>): Input Impedance
This parameter indicates the ratio of the change in base-emitter voltage (V<sub>BE</sub>) to the change in base current (I<sub>b</sub>) at a constant collector-emitter voltage (V<sub>CE</sub>). It characterizes the input impedance of the transistor.

h<sub>re</sub> (or h<sub>12</sub>): Output Admittance
This parameter represents the change in collector-emitter voltage (V<sub>CE</sub>) divided by the change in collector current (I<sub>c</sub>) at a constant base-emitter voltage (V<sub>BE</sub>). It characterizes the output impedance of the transistor.

h<sub>oe</sub> (or h<sub>22</sub>): Reverse Voltage Transfer Ratio
This parameter indicates the ratio of the change in collector-emitter voltage (V<sub>CE</sub>) to the change in collector current (I<sub>c</sub>) at a constant base-emitter voltage (V<sub>BE</sub>). It characterizes the transistor's susceptibility to changes in output voltage caused by variations in collector current.

For field-effect transistors (FETs), similar parameters are used, but they are named differently:

h<sub>21</sub>: Common Source Current Gain
h<sub>11</sub>: Input Impedance
h<sub>12</sub>: Forward Transfer Admittance
h<sub>22</sub>: Reverse Transfer Admittance

These h-parameters provide a simplified linear model for analyzing transistor behavior under small-signal conditions. They are valuable tools for designing amplifier circuits, determining the frequency response of circuits, and predicting the gain and impedance characteristics of a transistor in various configurations.
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