Explain the concept of the superposition theorem in circuit analysis.

To apply the Superposition Theorem, follow these steps:

Identify the independent sources: Independent sources are voltage sources (V) and current sources (I) that are not dependent on other circuit variables (e.g., resistors, capacitors, or inductors).

Turn off all independent sources but one: Turn off or short-circuit all independent voltage sources and open-circuit all independent current sources except the one being analyzed. This means replacing voltage sources with a short circuit (zero volts) and current sources with an open circuit (infinite impedance).

Analyze the circuit with only one source: Now, the circuit contains only one active independent source, and you can solve for the desired voltage or current using standard circuit analysis techniques like Ohm's law, Kirchhoff's laws, or nodal/mesh analysis.

Repeat for each independent source: Once you have found the response for the first independent source, restore it to its original condition, and then turn off the next independent source. Repeat the analysis process for each independent source in the circuit.

Superposition principle: Finally, obtain the total response across the element of interest by summing up the individual responses obtained for each independent source. Since linear circuits obey the principle of superposition, the total response will be equal to the algebraic sum of the responses from each source.

It's important to note that the Superposition Theorem is only applicable to linear circuits, which means the circuit elements must follow Ohm's law, and there should be no elements with nonlinear characteristics like diodes or transistors.

By using the Superposition Theorem, you can simplify the analysis of complex circuits and determine voltage drops, currents, or power dissipation across specific elements with relative ease.