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Describe the operation of a NAND gate using a truth table and its equivalent circuit using transistors.

1 Answer

A NAND gate (NOT-AND gate) is a fundamental logic gate with two or more inputs and one output. It performs the opposite function of an AND gate. The output of a NAND gate is HIGH (1) only when all of its inputs are LOW (0); otherwise, the output is LOW (0). We can represent the operation of a 2-input NAND gate using a truth table:

Truth table for a 2-input NAND gate:

Input A    Input B    Output
0    0    1
0    1    1
1    0    1
1    1    0

Equivalent circuit using transistors:

A NAND gate can be built using transistors. In this example, we'll construct a 2-input NAND gate using NPN bipolar junction transistors (BJTs). The circuit will utilize two transistors and a few resistors.

Here's the schematic for a 2-input NAND gate using transistors:

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         Vcc
          |
          R1
          |
   InputA o--- BJT1
          |\
          | \       Output
          | /       o-----> Y
   InputB o--- BJT2
          |
         GND


Explanation:

The two inputs of the NAND gate are InputA and InputB. These inputs are connected to the bases of two NPN transistors, BJT1 and BJT2.

Each transistor (BJT1 and BJT2) has its emitter connected to the ground (GND) and its collector connected to the output (Y).

A pull-up resistor (R1) is connected between Vcc (the positive supply voltage) and the output (Y).

The output (Y) is taken from the collectors of both transistors.

Operation:

When both InputA and InputB are LOW (0V), no current flows into the bases of BJT1 and BJT2. As a result, both transistors are off, and the output is pulled HIGH (Vcc) through the pull-up resistor (R1).

When either InputA or InputB (or both) is HIGH (Vcc), current flows into the base of the corresponding transistor, turning it on. When any transistor is on, the output path to ground is established, causing the output (Y) to be pulled LOW (0V).

Thus, the circuit effectively implements the truth table of a NAND gate. When both inputs are LOW, the output is HIGH, and for any other input combination, the output is LOW.
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