A Variable Frequency Drive (VFD), also known as an Adjustable Frequency Drive (AFD) or Variable Speed Drive (VSD), is an electronic device used to control the speed of an alternating current (AC) motor. It achieves speed regulation by adjusting the frequency and voltage of the electrical power supplied to the motor. Here's how it works:
Conversion from AC to DC: The first step is to convert the incoming AC power (usually from the mains or power grid) into direct current (DC) using a rectifier. The rectifier circuit, typically made up of diodes, converts the AC voltage into a pulsating DC voltage.
DC Link: The pulsating DC voltage obtained from the rectifier is smoothed out using capacitors to create a stable DC voltage known as the DC link. This DC link acts as an intermediate energy storage between the input side and the output side of the VFD.
Inverter Section: The inverter section is responsible for converting the DC voltage from the DC link back into AC voltage with adjustable frequency and voltage. This is achieved using a series of insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) or power transistors. These devices switch on and off rapidly to create a series of voltage pulses that simulate an AC waveform with the desired frequency.
Pulse Width Modulation (PWM): To control the output frequency and voltage, the VFD uses a technique called Pulse Width Modulation (PWM). By adjusting the width of the voltage pulses in the inverter section, the effective voltage and frequency supplied to the motor can be varied. For example, a longer "on" time of the pulses results in a higher voltage and frequency, which leads to a higher motor speed, and vice versa.
Motor Control: The modulated AC output from the VFD is then fed to the AC motor. By controlling the frequency and voltage of the power supplied to the motor, the VFD can regulate the motor's rotational speed.
Feedback Control: Most VFDs include a feedback system to monitor the motor speed and other relevant parameters. This feedback is often obtained from sensors like encoders or tachometers on the motor shaft. The VFD continuously compares the desired motor speed (set by the user) with the actual motor speed (measured by the feedback system) and adjusts the output frequency and voltage to maintain the desired speed.
By continuously adjusting the output frequency and voltage supplied to the motor, the VFD can provide smooth and precise control over the motor's speed, making it an essential component in various industrial and commercial applications where variable speed control is required. This not only helps in energy savings but also allows for better process control and reduced mechanical stress on the motor and connected machinery.