A Variable Reluctance Resolver (VRR), also known as a Resolver, is an electromechanical device used for position sensing in various applications. It is a type of rotary electrical transformer that converts mechanical angular position into an electrical signal. Resolvers are known for their robustness, high accuracy, and reliability, making them suitable for harsh environments and demanding industrial applications.
Operation of a Variable Reluctance Resolver:
Construction: A resolver consists of a stator and a rotor. The stator typically contains three evenly spaced windings, each positioned 120 degrees apart. These windings are energized with AC voltages.
Stator Excitation: The AC voltages applied to the stator windings create a magnetic field around them. The frequency of the excitation signal is constant, usually in the range of 400 Hz to 5 kHz.
Rotor Configuration: The rotor is mounted on the shaft whose position needs to be sensed. It is constructed using a ferromagnetic material, and it contains no electrical windings like the stator.
Principle of Variable Reluctance: The basic principle of operation relies on the concept of variable reluctance. Reluctance is the opposition of a material to the magnetic flux passing through it. When the rotor turns, its position relative to the stator windings changes, leading to variations in the magnetic reluctance between the rotor and each stator winding.
Output Voltages: As the rotor rotates, the magnetic coupling between the rotor and stator windings varies. This change in magnetic coupling induces voltage in the stator windings proportionate to the angle of rotation. The amplitude and phase of these induced voltages are directly related to the rotor's angular position relative to the stator windings.
Resolver Signal Processing: The induced voltages in the stator windings are typically processed through a resolver-to-digital converter (RDC), which converts the analog signals into digital values. The RDC then uses various algorithms to determine the rotor's exact angular position based on the amplitude and phase relationships of the induced voltages.
Use in Position Sensing:
Variable Reluctance Resolvers find applications in various industries where accurate and rugged position sensing is required. Some common uses include:
Aerospace: Resolvers are used in aircraft and spacecraft for applications such as controlling flight surfaces, determining antenna positions, and managing the orientation of various components.
Industrial Automation: They are employed in robotic systems, machine tools, and automation processes to measure angles and positions accurately.
Automotive: Resolvers can be found in automotive systems, including electric power steering, throttle position sensing, and motor control applications.
Defense and Military: Resolvers are used in military equipment for turret positioning, radar systems, and gun tracking.
Renewable Energy: They can be utilized in wind turbines and solar tracking systems to monitor the position of blades or solar panels.
Navigation and Satellites: Resolvers play a role in satellite systems for antenna pointing, solar array positioning, and satellite dish alignment.
Overall, Variable Reluctance Resolvers offer reliable and accurate position sensing in demanding environments, making them a preferred choice in many critical applications across various industries.