A digital multiplexer, often referred to simply as a "mux," is a fundamental building block in digital electronics and data communication systems. Its primary function is to select one of many input lines and pass its data to a single output line based on the control signals. Here are the key characteristics of a digital multiplexer:
Input Lines (Data Inputs): A multiplexer has multiple input lines (usually denoted as D0, D1, D2, ..., Dn), where 'n' is the number of inputs available. Each input line carries digital data or signals that need to be switched.
Output Line (Data Output): There is one output line (denoted as Y), which carries the selected data from one of the input lines. The data present on the selected input line is forwarded to the output line.
Control Inputs (Select Lines): The control inputs determine which input line is selected for transmission to the output. The number of select lines required is determined by the number of inputs 'n.' The select lines (usually denoted as S0, S1, ..., Sm) specify the binary address of the input line to be selected.
Selection Function: The control inputs are used to perform the selection function, which determines the input line to be connected to the output line. The binary representation of the control inputs corresponds to the input line number that will be selected.
Truth Table: A truth table defines the behavior of a multiplexer. It shows the relationship between the select inputs and the selected input line.
Number of Inputs (n): The number of input lines in a multiplexer can be 2^n, where 'n' is the number of select lines. For example, a 2-to-1 multiplexer has 2 input lines (2^1) and 1 select line.
Common Applications: Multiplexers are widely used for data routing and selection in various digital systems, such as data transmission, memory addressing, bus switching, and control unit selection in microprocessors.
Digital Logic Implementation: Multiplexers can be constructed using basic digital logic gates, such as AND, OR, and NOT gates, or using more complex logic gates like NAND or NOR gates.
Multiplexer with Enable (MUX with Enable): Some multiplexers include an additional control input called "Enable" or "E" which allows or inhibits the data transmission through the multiplexer based on its state.
Demultiplexer (DEMUX): A demultiplexer is the reverse of a multiplexer. It takes a single input and distributes it to one of several output lines based on control inputs.
Digital multiplexers are essential components in digital circuit design and play a crucial role in data manipulation and communication processes.