How do you represent voltages and currents as phasors?

To represent voltages and currents as phasors, you need to follow these steps:

1. Start with the sinusoidal time-domain representation: AC voltages and currents are sinusoidal functions of time, typically expressed as:

V(t) = Vm * sin(ωt + φv) (for voltages)

I(t) = Im * sin(ωt + φi) (for currents)

Where:

- V(t) and I(t) are the time-domain voltage and current functions, respectively.

- Vm and Im are the peak magnitudes (amplitudes) of the voltage and current, respectively.

- ω is the angular frequency (2π times the frequency in Hertz) of the AC signal.

- φv and φi are the phase angles of the voltage and current, respectively.

2. Convert the sinusoidal time-domain representation to phasor representation: In phasor representation, we express the magnitudes and phase angles of the sinusoidal quantities as complex numbers. The general phasor representation for voltage and current would be:

V = Vm * e^(jφv)

I = Im * e^(jφi)

Where:

- V and I are the phasors representing the voltage and current, respectively.

- e is the base of the natural logarithm (approximately 2.71828).

- j is the imaginary unit (j^2 = -1).

3. Perform phasor arithmetic: Phasors follow the same algebraic rules as complex numbers. To analyze AC circuits using phasors, you can perform mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division using phasors.

4. Convert back to time-domain (if needed): After performing the necessary analysis using phasors, you might need to convert the results back to the time-domain to obtain the actual sinusoidal quantities.

Phasors provide a powerful tool for analyzing AC circuits, simplifying complex calculations and allowing engineers to work with amplitudes and phase angles directly. They are particularly useful when dealing with linear time-invariant AC circuits in steady-state conditions.