A switched-capacitor high-pass filter (SCHPF) is an electronic filter that attenuates low-frequency signals while allowing higher-frequency signals to pass through. It is based on the principle of switched-capacitor circuits, which use a series of switches to sample and store charge in capacitors to create the filtering effect.
The basic components of a switched-capacitor high-pass filter include capacitors, switches, and operational amplifiers (op-amps). The op-amps serve as buffer and gain stages in the circuit. The switches, controlled by clock signals, are used to connect and disconnect capacitors in a precise manner to implement the filtering operation.
Here's how the SCHPF works:
Clock signal: The filter operates using a clock signal that controls the timing of the switches. The clock signal determines the sampling frequency and the time intervals during which the capacitors are connected in the circuit.
Sampling phase: During the first phase of the clock cycle, the switches are turned on, and the capacitors are connected in the circuit. The op-amp's input is connected to the input signal during this phase.
Charging phase: Once the switches are closed, the capacitors start to charge. The voltage across the capacitors is proportional to the input signal voltage during this phase.
Discharging phase: In the second phase of the clock cycle, the switches are opened, disconnecting the capacitors from the input signal. The charged capacitors are now connected to the op-amp's output.
Feedback operation: The op-amp amplifies the voltage difference across the capacitors and applies feedback to the input, which creates the desired filtering effect. The op-amp tries to maintain both inputs at the same voltage level (virtual ground assumption), causing the output voltage to change based on the voltage difference across the capacitors.
Frequency response: The cutoff frequency of the high-pass filter is determined by the charging and discharging periods of the capacitors, which are controlled by the clock frequency. Lower clock frequencies lead to lower cutoff frequencies, allowing more low-frequency components to pass through the filter.
Switched-capacitor high-pass filters have several advantages, such as:
Simplicity of design: They can be implemented using standard CMOS technology, making them suitable for integration into integrated circuits.
High accuracy and stability: The precision of the filter components allows for accurate cutoff frequency control and consistent performance over temperature and other environmental variations.
Low power consumption: They can be designed to consume less power compared to other types of filters, making them suitable for battery-operated devices.
However, they also have some drawbacks, including limited bandwidth due to clock frequency limitations and the potential for noise generated by the clock signal.
Switched-capacitor filters are commonly used in various applications, such as anti-aliasing filters in analog-to-digital converters, audio processing, and communications systems where precise frequency control and low-power operation are essential.