How do you calculate apparent power in an AC circuit?

Apparent Power (S) = Voltage (V) Ă Current (I)

where:

Voltage (V) is the RMS voltage (root mean square voltage) across the circuit, measured in volts (V).

Current (I) is the RMS current flowing through the circuit, measured in amperes (A).

RMS values are used because they represent the effective or equivalent DC value of an AC waveform. For sinusoidal waveforms, the RMS value is approximately 0.707 times the peak value.

To calculate apparent power, you need to measure the RMS voltage and current at a specific point in the AC circuit, and then multiply these values together using the formula mentioned above. Keep in mind that apparent power does not represent the actual power consumed by the resistive elements in the circuit but rather the total power that is supplied, which includes both real and reactive components. To find the real power (in watts) and reactive power (in volt-amperes reactive, VAR), you'll need additional information about the phase relationship between voltage and current, usually represented by the power factor.

The power factor (PF) is defined as the cosine of the angle between the voltage and current phasors in the circuit. It represents the ratio of real power to apparent power and is given by:

Power Factor (PF) = Real Power (P) / Apparent Power (S)

So, to calculate the real power:

Real Power (P) = Apparent Power (S) Ă Power Factor (PF)

And the reactive power can be found as:

Reactive Power (Q) = â(Apparent Power (S)^2 - Real Power (P)^2)

Remember that in a purely resistive circuit, the power factor is 1, and the reactive power is 0. In such cases, the apparent power and real power will be equal. However, in circuits with inductive or capacitive loads, the power factor will be less than 1, and the reactive power will be non-zero, leading to a difference between apparent and real power.