Define capacitance.

Mathematically, capacitance (C) is expressed as the ratio of the electric charge (Q) stored on one of the capacitor's plates to the potential difference (V) across the plates. It is represented by the equation:

C = Q / V

where:

C = Capacitance (measured in Farads, symbol F)

Q = Electric charge stored on one plate (measured in Coulombs, symbol C)

V = Potential difference (voltage) across the plates (measured in Volts, symbol V)

The capacitance of a capacitor depends on its physical characteristics, such as the area of the plates, the distance between the plates (dielectric separation), and the properties of the dielectric material between the plates. A larger capacitance value indicates that the capacitor can store more charge for a given voltage, while a smaller capacitance means it can store less charge. Capacitors are widely used in various electronic circuits for filtering, energy storage, coupling, and timing applications.