What are the main characteristics of an ideal operational amplifier (op-amp)?

Infinite Open-Loop Gain (AOL): The ideal op-amp has an infinite open-loop gain, meaning the output voltage is directly proportional to the difference between the input voltages. This implies that the gain (A) of an ideal op-amp is extremely high.

Infinite Input Impedance: The ideal op-amp's input impedance is infinite, meaning it draws zero current from the input sources. As a result, there is no loading effect on the input sources, making it an excellent buffer between different parts of a circuit.

Zero Output Impedance: The ideal op-amp's output impedance is zero, allowing it to deliver any amount of current to the load without affecting the output voltage.

Infinite Bandwidth: The ideal op-amp has infinite bandwidth, which means it can amplify signals with any frequency without distortion.

Zero Input Offset Voltage: The ideal op-amp has no input offset voltage, so the output is zero when both inputs are equal.

Infinite Slew Rate: The ideal op-amp has an infinite slew rate, allowing it to respond to changes in the input voltage instantaneously.

Zero Noise: The ideal op-amp is free from noise sources, so it doesn't introduce any additional noise into the circuit.

Infinite Common-Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR): The ideal op-amp rejects any common-mode signals applied to its inputs, focusing only on the differential input.

Infinite Supply Voltage Range: The ideal op-amp can operate with any supply voltage, including both positive and negative values.

Infinite Common-Mode Input Range: The ideal op-amp can handle input voltages that go beyond the supply voltage range without distortion.

Zero Input Bias Current: The ideal op-amp has no input bias current, meaning no current flows into its inputs.

Zero Output Offset Voltage: The ideal op-amp has no output offset voltage when the inputs are equal.

It's essential to understand that real op-amps deviate from these ideal characteristics due to various limitations and imperfections in their design and fabrication processes. However, modern op-amps come close to these ideals and can be effectively used in a wide range of applications. Engineers take these deviations into account while designing circuits to achieve the desired performance.