How does an Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) convert continuous signals into digital data?

Sampling: The first step in the conversion process is sampling. The continuous analog signal is sampled at regular intervals. The ADC takes "snapshots" of the analog signal at discrete time points. The rate at which these samples are taken is called the sampling rate or frequency.

Quantization: Once the samples are obtained, the ADC quantizes them. Quantization involves assigning discrete numerical values to the amplitude of the analog signal at each sample point. In other words, it maps each sample to the nearest digital value that the ADC can represent.

Resolution: The number of bits used to represent each sample determines the ADC's resolution. Higher resolution ADCs can represent smaller voltage differences between two adjacent digital values, providing a more accurate representation of the analog signal.

Encoding: After quantization, the ADC encodes the analog values into binary digits (bits). For example, a 12-bit ADC will encode each sample into a 12-bit binary number.

Output: The binary representation of the samples is then transmitted or stored as digital data. This digital data can be further processed, stored, or used by digital systems.

The accuracy and fidelity of the digital representation depend on the ADC's resolution and the sampling rate. A higher sampling rate allows for a more accurate reconstruction of the original analog signal. Additionally, a higher-resolution ADC can represent smaller changes in the analog signal, resulting in better accuracy.

There are different types of ADC architectures, such as successive approximation, delta-sigma, and flash ADCs, each with its advantages and applications. The choice of ADC type depends on factors like speed, resolution, and power consumption requirements for a specific application.