What is the relationship between the current and voltage in a series RC circuit?

Ohm's Law: Ohm's Law states that the current (I) flowing through a resistor is directly proportional to the voltage (V) across it and inversely proportional to the resistance (R) of the resistor. Mathematically, Ohm's Law is expressed as:

V = I * R

Where:

V = Voltage across the resistor (in volts)

I = Current flowing through the resistor (in amperes)

R = Resistance of the resistor (in ohms)

Capacitor Behavior: In a series RC circuit, the capacitor's behavior introduces an additional relationship between the voltage across the capacitor (Vc) and the current flowing through it (Ic). The current through a capacitor is related to the rate of change of the voltage across it. Mathematically, the relationship between the current and voltage of a capacitor is given by:

Ic = C * dVc/dt

Where:

Ic = Current flowing through the capacitor (in amperes)

C = Capacitance of the capacitor (in farads)

Vc = Voltage across the capacitor (in volts)

dVc/dt = Rate of change of voltage across the capacitor with respect to time (in volts per second)

When these two components (resistor and capacitor) are connected in series in an RC circuit with a voltage source, the total current flowing through the circuit (Itotal) will be the sum of the current through the resistor (I) and the current through the capacitor (Ic):

Itotal = I + Ic

Now, since the capacitor's current is related to the rate of change of voltage across it, and the voltage across the capacitor is equal to the source voltage minus the voltage across the resistor (Vc = Vsource - V), we can rewrite the equation as:

Itotal = I + C * dV/dt

Here, dV/dt represents the rate of change of voltage across the resistor (V) with respect to time. This equation represents the relationship between the total current flowing through the series RC circuit and the rate of change of voltage across the resistor. As you can see, the behavior of the capacitor introduces a time-dependent aspect to the relationship between current and voltage in an RC circuit.