In a series circuit, where components are connected one after the other, the current remains the same throughout the entire circuit. This is because there is only one path for the current to flow, and the same amount of current flows through each component in the circuit.
The key principle to understand in a series circuit is that the current is constant across all the elements. So, if you have a battery (or any other power source) connected to a resistor, and then to another component like a capacitor or an inductor, the current flowing from the battery's positive terminal will be the same at all points in the circuit.
Mathematically, you can express this as:
I_total = I_1 = I_2 = I_3 = ... = I_n
I_total is the total current flowing through the circuit.
I_1, I_2, I_3, ..., I_n are the currents flowing through each individual component in the circuit.
It's important to note that while the current remains the same across all components in a series circuit, the voltage may vary across different elements depending on their individual resistance (Ohm's law: V = I * R). As the current flows through each component, the voltage drops across resistors, capacitors, and other elements in the circuit.
In summary, in a series circuit, the current remains constant, while the voltage may vary across different components.