How do you calculate the output voltage in a voltage divider circuit?

The formula to calculate the output voltage (Vout) in a voltage divider circuit is:

Vout = Vin * (R2 / (R1 + R2))

where:

Vin is the input voltage applied to the voltage divider circuit.

R1 is the resistance of the first resistor in the series.

R2 is the resistance of the second resistor in the series.

Keep in mind the following points while using this formula:

Make sure the units of resistance are consistent (e.g., ohms).

The output voltage will always be less than the input voltage in a voltage divider circuit.

For more complex voltage divider circuits with more than two resistors, you can apply the same concept iteratively to calculate the overall output voltage.

Here's an example:

Suppose you have a voltage divider circuit with the following parameters:

Vin = 12V

R1 = 1k ohm (1000 ohms)

R2 = 2k ohms (2000 ohms)

Using the formula, you can calculate the output voltage (Vout) as follows:

Vout = 12V * (2000 ohms / (1000 ohms + 2000 ohms))

Vout = 12V * (2000 ohms / 3000 ohms)

Vout = 12V * (2/3)

Vout = 8V

So, in this example, the output voltage (Vout) will be 8 volts.