Explain the steps involved in solving a circuit using node voltage analysis.

Identify Nodes: Examine the circuit and identify all the essential nodes. A node is a point in the circuit where two or more elements (resistors, voltage sources, current sources, etc.) are connected together.

Select a Reference Node: Choose one of the nodes as the reference node (usually the ground node) and assign it a reference voltage of 0V. This simplifies the analysis and helps to determine the voltages at other nodes with respect to the reference node.

Define Node Voltages: Assign variables (usually represented as V1, V2, V3, etc.) to the voltage at each node with respect to the reference node. For N nodes in the circuit, you will have N-1 node voltages, as one node is the reference node and has a fixed voltage (0V).

Apply KCL at Each Node: For each non-reference node, apply Kirchhoff's Current Law (KCL), which states that the algebraic sum of currents at any node is equal to zero. Write the KCL equation for each non-reference node using the node voltages and the currents flowing into or out of the node through the connected elements.

Express Currents in Terms of Node Voltages: Use Ohm's Law and the relationship between voltage and current for resistors, as well as the characteristics of current sources, to express all currents in terms of node voltages.

Formulate the Node Voltage Equations: Combine the KCL equations and the expressions for currents in terms of node voltages to create a system of simultaneous linear equations.

Solve the Node Voltage Equations: Solve the system of equations to find the values of all the node voltages.

Calculate Other Parameters: Once you have the node voltages, you can calculate any other desired parameters in the circuit, such as currents through the elements or power dissipation.

Verify Results: Double-check your calculations and ensure that the node voltages satisfy the KCL equations at each node. Also, check if the assumed directions of currents are consistent with the calculated node voltages.

Node voltage analysis is a powerful method for solving complex circuits and is widely used in both academic and practical electrical engineering applications. It is particularly effective when there are many interconnected nodes in the circuit, and it helps to reduce the number of equations needed to solve the circuit compared to other methods like mesh analysis.