It seems like there might be a slight confusion in the term "peltier diode." Thermoelectric cooling devices are based on the Peltier effect, and they are often referred to as "Peltier modules" or "Peltier coolers." There is no specific component known as a "peltier diode." However, I can explain the operation of a Peltier module, which is the thermoelectric cooling device based on the Peltier effect.
A Peltier module is a semiconductor device that can transfer heat from one side to another when an electric current is applied. It utilizes the Peltier effect, discovered by Jean Charles Athanase Peltier in 1834, which states that when an electric current flows through the junction of two dissimilar conductive materials, heat is either absorbed or released at the junction, depending on the direction of the current.
The Peltier module consists of two layers of semiconductor material, usually made of bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) or other thermoelectric materials. These layers are connected electrically in series and thermally in parallel. One side of the module is the cold side, and the other side is the hot side.
Here's how the Peltier module works in thermoelectric cooling:
Application of Electric Current: When a direct electric current is applied to the Peltier module, electrons flow from one semiconductor layer to the other. At the junction where the two layers meet, some electrons lose energy and fall into a lower energy state. To conserve energy, this energy is taken from the lattice structure of the material, causing one side of the junction to absorb heat (the cold side), and the other side to release heat (the hot side).
Heat Transfer: As heat is absorbed on one side and released on the other, the Peltier module can effectively transfer heat from the cold side to the hot side, or vice versa, depending on the direction of the electric current.
Cooling and Heating: To achieve cooling, the direction of the electric current is set to transfer heat from the cold side to the hot side, effectively cooling the cold side. This is commonly used in small refrigeration systems for electronic components, beverage coolers, and other compact cooling applications.
Efficiency: The cooling efficiency of Peltier modules is influenced by various factors such as the material properties, the electric current applied, and the temperature difference between the hot and cold sides. However, Peltier modules are generally less efficient than traditional vapor-compression refrigeration systems for larger-scale cooling applications.
It's worth noting that Peltier modules can be reversible. By changing the direction of the electric current, they can be used for both cooling and heating applications. However, their efficiency and cooling capacity might be limited compared to other cooling methods in certain scenarios.