What is a series circuit?

Key characteristics of a series circuit:

Single Path: In a series circuit, there is only one path for the current to flow. The current flows through one component, then through the next, and so on, until it completes the loop.

Same Current: Since there is only one pathway for the current, the same amount of current flows through each component in the circuit. This is in contrast to a parallel circuit, where the current is divided among multiple paths.

Additive Resistance: The total resistance in a series circuit is the sum of the resistances of all the individual components. As current encounters each component's resistance, the total voltage across the circuit is divided among the components.

Shared Voltage: The voltage across the entire series circuit is equal to the sum of the voltage drops across each component. This means that the total voltage provided by the power source is distributed among the various components in the circuit.

Failure in One Component Affects the Whole Circuit: If one component in a series circuit fails or is disconnected, the entire circuit will be open, and no current will flow through any part of it.

Example of a simple series circuit:

css

Copy code

----[R1]----[R2]----[R3]----[R4]----

| | | |

V1 V2 V3 V4

In this example, "R" represents resistors, and "V" represents the voltage drop across each resistor. The current passing through each resistor is the same, and the total resistance of the circuit is the sum of R1, R2, R3, and R4. The voltage provided by the power source is shared among the resistors.

Series circuits have various practical applications in electronics, such as in household lighting circuits and certain types of sensors. Understanding series circuits is fundamental in electronics and electrical engineering as it forms the basis for more complex circuit configurations.